- Class Skills
- Class Features
- Weapon and Armor Proficiency
- Spontaneous Casting
- Chaotic, Evil, Good, and Lawful Spells
- Orisons (Sp)
- Bonus Languages
- Nature Bond (Ex)
- Nature Sense (Ex)
- Wild Empathy (Ex)
- Woodland Stride (Ex)
- Trackless Step (Ex)
- Resist Nature’s Lure (Ex)
- Wild Shape (Su)
- Venom Immunity (Ex)
- A Thousand Faces (Su)
- Timeless Body (Ex)
- Favored Class Bonuses
- Archetypes & Alternate Class Features
Within the purity of the elements and the order of the wilds lingers a power beyond the marvels of civilization. Furtive yet undeniable, these primal magics are guarded over by servants of philosophical balance known as druids. Allies to beasts and manipulators of nature, these often misunderstood protectors of the wild strive to shield their lands from all who would threaten them and prove the might of the wilds to those who lock themselves behind city walls. Rewarded for their devotion with incredible powers, druids gain unparalleled shape-shifting abilities, the companionship of mighty beasts, and the power to call upon nature’s wrath. The mightiest temper powers akin to storms, earthquakes, and volcanoes with primeval wisdom long abandoned and forgotten by civilization.
Role: While some druids might keep to the fringe of battle, allowing companions and summoned creatures to fight while they confound foes with the powers of nature, others transform into deadly beasts and savagely wade into combat. Druids worship personifications of elemental forces, natural powers, or nature itself. Typically this means devotion to a nature deity, though druids are just as likely to revere vague spirits, animalistic demigods, or even specific awe-inspiring natural wonders.
Alignment: Any neutral
Hit Die: d8
Starting Wealth: 2d6 × 10 gp (average 70 gp.) In addition, each character begins play with an outfit worth 10 gp or less.
The druid’s class skills are Climb (Str), Craft (Int), Fly (Dex), Handle Animal (Cha), Heal (Wis), Knowledge (geography) (Int), Knowledge (nature) (Int), Perception (Wis), Profession (Wis), Ride (Dex), Spellcraft (Int), Survival (Wis), and Swim (Str).
Skill Ranks Per Level: 4 + Int modifier.
|Level||Base Attack Bonus||Fort Save||Ref Save||Will Save||Special||Spells Per Day|
|1st||+0||+2||+0||+2||Nature bond, nature sense, orisons, wild empathy||3||1||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—|
|4th||+3||+4||+1||+4||Resist nature’s lure, wild shape (1/day)||4||3||2||—||—||—||—||—||—||—|
|6th||+4||+5||+2||+5||Wild shape (2/day)||4||3||3||2||—||—||—||—||—||—|
|8th||+6/+1||+6||+2||+6||Wild shape (3/day)||4||4||3||3||2||—||—||—||—||—|
|10th||+7/+2||+7||+3||+7||Wild shape (4/day)||4||4||4||3||3||2||—||—||—||—|
|12th||+9/+4||+8||+4||+8||Wild shape (5/day)||4||4||4||4||3||3||2||—||—||—|
|13th||+9/+4||+8||+4||+8||A thousand faces||4||4||4||4||4||3||2||1||—||—|
|14th||+10/+5||+9||+4||+9||Wild shape (6/day)||4||4||4||4||4||3||3||2||—||—|
|16th||+12/+7/+2||+10||+5||+10||Wild shape (7/day)||4||4||4||4||4||4||3||3||2||—|
|18th||+13/+8/+3||+11||+6||+11||Wild shape (8/day)||4||4||4||4||4||4||4||3||3||2|
|20th||+15/+10/+5||+12||+6||+12||Wild shape (at will)||4||4||4||4||4||4||4||4||4||4|
All of the following are class features of the druid.
Druids are proficient with the following weapons: club, dagger, dart, quarterstaff, scimitar, scythe, sickle, shortspear, sling, and spear. They are also proficient with all natural attacks (claw, bite, and so forth) of any form they assume with wild shape (see below).
Druids are proficient with light and medium armor but are prohibited from wearing metal armor; thus, they may wear only padded, leather, or hide armor. A druid may also wear wooden armor that has been altered by the ironwood spell so that it functions as though it were steel. Druids are proficient with shields (except tower shields) but must use only wooden ones.
A druid who wears prohibited armor or uses a prohibited shield is unable to cast druid spells or use any of her supernatural or spell-like class abilities while doing so and for 24 hours thereafter.
A druid casts divine spells, which are drawn from the druid spell list. Her alignment may restrict her from casting certain spells opposed to her moral or ethical beliefs; see Chaotic, Evil, Good, and Lawful Spells. A druid must choose and prepare her spells in advance.
To prepare or cast a spell, the druid must have a Wisdom score equal to at least 10 + the spell level. The Difficulty Class for a saving throw against a druid’s spell is 10 + the spell level + the druid’s Wisdom modifier.
Like other spellcasters, a druid can cast only a certain number of spells of each spell level per day. Her base daily spell allotment is given on Table: Druid. In addition, she receives bonus spells per day if she has a high Wisdom score (see Table: Ability Modifiers and Bonus Spells).
A druid must spend 1 hour each day in a trance-like meditation on the mysteries of nature to regain her daily allotment of spells. A druid may prepare and cast any spell on the druid spell list, provided that she can cast spells of that level, but she must choose which spells to prepare during her daily meditation.
A druid can channel stored spell energy into summoning spells that she hasn’t prepared ahead of time. She can “lose” a prepared spell in order to cast any summon nature’s ally spell of the same level or lower.
A druid can’t cast spells of an alignment opposed to her own or her deity’s (if she has one). Spells associated with particular alignments are indicated by the chaos, evil, good, and law descriptors in their spell descriptions.
Druids can prepare a number of orisons, or 0-level spells, each day, as noted on Table: Druid under “Spells per Day.” These spells are cast like any other spell, but they are not expended when cast and may be used again.
A druid’s bonus language options include Sylvan, the language of woodland creatures. This choice is in addition to the bonus languages available to the character because of her race.
A druid also knows Druidic, a secret language known only to druids, which she learns upon becoming a 1st-level druid. Druidic is a free language for a druid; that is, she knows it in addition to her regular allotment of languages and it doesn’t take up a language slot. Druids are forbidden to teach this language to nondruids.
Druidic has its own alphabet.
Can druids, inquisitors, and other classes with access to domains take subdomains?
Yes, as long as they follow the rules for subdomains. A character who does not worship a deity (such as some druids and paladins) may select any one subdomain appropriate to a domain available to his or her class.
At 1st level, a druid forms a bond with nature. This bond can take one of two forms. The first is a close tie to the natural world, granting the druid one of the following cleric domains: Air, Animal, Earth, Fire, Plant, Water, or Weather. Druids also have access to a set of Animal and Terrain Domains. When determining the powers and bonus spells granted by this domain, the druid’s effective cleric level is equal to her druid level. A druid that selects this option also receives additional domain spell slots, just like a cleric. She must prepare the spell from her domain in this slot and this spell cannot be used to cast a spell spontaneously.
The second option is to form a close bond with an animal companion. A druid may begin play with any of the animals listed in Animal Choices. This animal is a loyal companion that accompanies the druid on her adventures.
Unlike normal animals of its kind, an animal companion’s Hit Dice, abilities, skills, and feats advance as the druid advances in level. If a character receives an animal companion from more than one source, her effective druid levels stack for the purposes of determining the statistics and abilities of the companion. Most animal companions increase in size when their druid reaches 4th or 7th level, depending on the companion. If a druid releases her companion from service, she may gain a new one by performing a ceremony requiring 24 uninterrupted hours of prayer in the environment where the new companion typically lives. This ceremony can also replace an animal companion that has perished.
Druidic Herbalism Nature Bond Variant (Optional)
Druidic herbalism is a nature bond option that can be taken by any druid at 1st level except those with archetypes or alternate class features that alter or replace nature bond or mandate a specific nature bond choice.
Instead of granting access to a domain or an animal companion, a druid’s bond with nature can take a third form: access to druidic herbalism.
A druid who chooses to learn druidic herbalism can use combinations of nuts, berries, dried herbs, and other natural ingredients along with appropriate containers to create herbal concoctions or magic consumables that function like potions. This acts like the Brew Potion feat, but only for spells on the druid spell list. Herbal concoctions are typically thick and sludgy, and their creation time, caster level, spell duplication capabilities, and all other variables and properties are identical to those of potions created using Brew Potion. Herbal concoctions created with herbs that cause special effects when ingested retain those effects as well as the appropriate spell effect.
A druid can create a number of free herbal concoctions per day equal to her Wisdom modifier. Additional concoctions cost the same as creating an equivalent potion using Brew Potion. Druids can sell their herbal concoctions just as if they were potions (though NPCs unfamiliar with druidic herbalism may need some convincing before purchasing these wares).
At 4th level, a druid’s increasing skill with herbalism means that she can disguise the effects of her herbal concoctions. When a creature attempts a Perception or Spellcraft check to identify one of the druid’s concoctions, the concoction appears to be a different herbal concoction of the druid’s choice unless the creature exceeds the identification DC by 5 or more. The druid must designate this false result when creating the concoction. If a creature exceeds the identification DC by 5 or more, it correctly identifies the concoction, though not that the druid tried to fool it.
Additionally, at 4th level, when the druid creates additional concoctions, she need pay only half the normal cost to create them. It takes her only half the normal time to create her concoctions, and she can create concoctions of spells from any spell list, as long as she can cast the spell.
At 7th level, when the druid creates concoctions with potential false identification results, a creature attempting to identify the concoction must exceed the identification DC by 10 or more to determine the concoction’s true identity.
Additionally, at 7th level, a druid can create any herbal concoction in 1 minute. She can also create a special concoction of any spell higher than 3rd level that she can cast, but to do so, she must expend a spell slot of the same level. These special concoctions do not cost her anything to create and function like extracts created by an alchemist with the infusion discovery.
A druid can improve the attitude of an animal. This ability functions just like a Diplomacy check made to improve the attitude of a person. The druid rolls 1d20 and adds her druid level and her Charisma modifier to determine the wild empathy check result.
To use wild empathy, the druid and the animal must be able to study each other, which means that they must be within 30 feet of one another under normal conditions. Generally, influencing an animal in this way takes 1 minute but, as with influencing people, it might take more or less time.
A druid can also use this ability to influence a magical beast with an Intelligence score of 1 or 2, but she takes a –4 penalty on the check.
Starting at 2nd level, a druid may move through any sort of undergrowth (such as natural thorns, briars, overgrown areas, and similar terrain) at her normal speed and without taking damage or suffering any other impairment. Thorns, briars, and overgrown areas that have been magically manipulated to impede motion, however, still affect her.
Starting at 3rd level, a druid leaves no trail in natural surroundings and cannot be tracked. She may choose to leave a trail if so desired.
Starting at 4th level, a druid gains a +4 bonus on saving throws against the spell-like and supernatural abilities of fey. This bonus also applies to spells and effects that target plants, such as blight, entangle, spike growth, and warp wood.
At 4th level, a druid gains the ability to turn herself into any small or Medium animal and back again once per day. Her options for new forms include all creatures with the animal type. This ability functions like the beast shape I spell, except as noted here. The effect lasts for 1 hour per druid level, or until she changes back. Changing form (to animal or back) is a standard action and doesn’t provoke an attack of opportunity. The form chosen must be that of an animal the druid is familiar with.
A druid loses her ability to speak while in animal form because she is limited to the sounds that a normal, untrained animal can make, but she can communicate normally with other animals of the same general grouping as her new form. (The normal sound a wild parrot makes is a squawk, so changing to this form does not permit speech.)
A druid can use this ability an additional time per day at 6th level and every two levels thereafter, for a total of eight times at 18th level. At 20th level, a druid can use wild shape at will. As a druid gains in levels, this ability allows the druid to take on the form of larger and smaller animals, elementals, and plants. Each form expends one daily usage of this ability, regardless of the form taken.
At 6th level, a druid can use wild shape to change into a Large or Tiny animal or a Small elemental. When taking the form of an animal, a druid’s wild shape now functions as beast shape II. When taking the form of an elemental, the druid’s wild shape functions as elemental body I.
At 8th level, a druid can use wild shape to change into a Huge or Diminutive animal, a Medium elemental, or a Small or Medium plant creature. When taking the form of animals, a druid’s wild shape now functions as beast shape III. When taking the form of an elemental, the druid’s wild shape now functions as elemental body II. When taking the form of a plant creature, the druid’s wild shape functions as plant shape I.
At 10th level, a druid can use wild shape to change into a Large elemental or a Large plant creature. When taking the form of an elemental, the druid’s wild shape now functions as elemental body III. When taking the form of a plant, the druid’s wild shape now functions as plant shape II.
At 12th level, a druid can use wild shape to change into a Huge elemental or a Huge plant creature. When taking the form of an elemental, the druid’s wild shape now functions as elemental body IV. When taking the form of a plant, the druid’s wild shape now functions as plant shape III.
At 9th level, a druid gains immunity to all poisons.
At 13th level, a druid gains the ability to change her appearance at will, as if using the alter self spell, but only while in her normal form.
After attaining 15th level, a druid no longer takes ability score penalties for aging and cannot be magically aged. Any penalties she may have already incurred, however, remain in place. Bonuses still accrue, and the druid still dies of old age when her time is up.
A druid who ceases to revere nature, changes to a prohibited alignment, or teaches the Druidic language to a nondruid loses all spells and druid abilities (including her animal companion, but not including weapon, armor, and shield proficiencies). She cannot thereafter gain levels as a druid until she atones (see the atonement spell description).
Instead of receiving an additional skill rank or hit point whenever they gain a level in a favored class, some races have the option of choosing from a number of other bonuses, depending upon their favored classes. The following options are available to the listed race who have druid as their favored class, and unless otherwise stated, the bonus applies each time you select the listed favored class reward.
|Dwarf||Select one domain power granted at 1st level that is normally usable a number of times per day equal to 3 + the druid’s Wisdom modifier. The druid adds +½ to the number of uses per day of that domain power.||ARG|
|Elf||Add +1/3 to the druid’s natural armor bonus when using wild shape.||ARG|
|Gnome||Gain energy resistance 1 against acid, cold, electricity, or fire. Each time the druid selects this reward, increase her resistance to one of these energy types by 1 (maximum 10 for any one type).||APG|
|Half-Elf||Select one cleric domain power at 1st level that is normally usable a number of times per day equal to 3 + the druid’s Wisdom modifier. The druid adds +½ to the number of uses per day of that domain power. For half-elf druids whose nature bond gives them an animal companion, add +1 skill rank to the animal companion. If the half-elf ever replaces her animal companion, the new companion gains these bonus skill ranks.||APG|
|Half-Orc||Add +1/3 to the druid’s natural armor bonus when using wild shape.||ARG|
|Halfling||Add a +¼ luck bonus on the saving throws of the druid’s animal companion.||ARG|
|Human||Add a +½ bonus on Diplomacy and Intimidate checks to change a creature’s attitude.||APG|
|Catfolk||Add +1 hit points to the druid’s animal companion. If the druid ever replaces her animal companion, the new animal companion gains these bonus hit points.||ARG|
|Goblin||Add +1 hit points to the druid’s animal companion. If the druid ever replaces her animal companion, the new animal companion gains these bonus hit points.||ARG|
|Grippli||Add a +½ bonus on concentration checks. This bonus doubles in a forest or swamp terrain.||ARG|
|Kitsune||Add a +½ bonus on Diplomacy and Intimidate checks to change a creature’s attitude.||ARG|
|Kobold||Add +½ to the druid’s wild empathy bonus.||ARG|
|Merfolk||Add +1 hit point to the druid’s animal companion. If the merfolk ever replaces her animal companion, the new animal companion gains these bonus hit points.||ARG|
|Orc||Add +½ to the damage dealt by the druid’s animal companion’s natural attacks.||ARG|
|Oread||Add a +½ bonus on Knowledge (nature) checks relating to plants and burrowing animals.||ARG|
|Ratfolk||Add a +1 bonus on wild empathy checks made to influence animals and magical beasts that live underground.||ARG|
|Sylph||Add a +½ bonus on Knowledge (nature) checks relating to weather and flying animals.||ARG|
|Tiefling||Add a +1 bonus on wild empathy checks made to improve the attitude of fiendish animals.||ARG|
|Undine||Add a +1 bonus on wild empathy checks to influence animals and magical beasts with the aquatic subtype.||ARG|
|Vanara||Add a +½ bonus on wild empathy checks and a +½ bonus on Handle Animal skill checks.||ARG|
|3rd Party Publishers|
|Jon Brazer Enterprises|
|Android||Gain electricity resistance 1. Each time the druid selects this reward, increase her resistance to electricity by 1 (maximum 10).||JBE:BoHR:AFCO|
|Changeling||Add +1/3 to the druid’s natural armor bonus while in wild shape.||JBE:BoHR:AFCO|
|Dhampir||Add +¼ to the damage of a bite attack.||JBE:BoHRC|
|Drow||Add a +½ bonus on Stealth check when using wild shape.||JBE:BoHRC|
|Duergar||Add a +½ bonus on wild empathy check made against burrowing animals and gain a +½ bonus on Handle Animal Checks.||JBE:BoHRC|
|Fetchling||Add a +½ bonus on Knowledge (nature) checks relating to plants and animals native to the Plane of Shadows.||JBE:BoHRC|
|Hobgoblin||Add a +½ circumstance bonus on critical hit confirmation rolls when one of the druid’s natural weapons (maximum bonus +4). This bonus does not stack with Critical Focus.||JBE:BoHRC|
|Orc||Add +½ to the damage dealt by the druid’s animal companion’s natural attacks.||JBE:BoHRC|
|Ratfolk||Add a +1 bonus on concentration check when casting cleric spell within 5 feet of an ally.||JBE:BoHRC|
|Tiefling||Add a +1 bonus on wild empathy check made to improve the attitude of fiendish animals.||JBE:BoHRC|
|Wayang||Add +½ to the damage dealt by the druid’s animal companion’s natural attacks.||JBE:BoHRC|
|Rogue Genius Games|
|Asterion||Add +1 ft. fast movement when in wild shape. (+5 feet fast movement for every five times you select this option.)||RGG:HHO|
|Lapith||Add +¼ to the number of 0-level spells you may prepare. (+1 0-level spell for every four times you select this option).||RGG:HHO|
|Piper||Add +½ to all Handle Animal and Knowledge (nature) checks. (+1 to these checks for every 2 times you select this option.)||RGG:HHO|
When a character selects a class, he must choose to use the standard class features found or those listed in one of the archetypes presented here. Each alternate class feature replaces a specific class feature from its parent class. For example, the elemental fist class feature of the monk of the four winds replaces the stunning fist class feature of the monk. When an archetype includes multiple class features, a character must take all of them—often blocking the character from ever gaining certain familiar class features, but replacing them with equally powerful options. All of the other class features found in the core class and not mentioned among the alternate class features remain unchanged and are acquired normally when the character reaches the appropriate level (unless noted otherwise). A character who takes an alternate class feature does not count as having the class feature that was replaced when meeting any requirements or prerequisites.
A character can take more than one archetype and garner additional alternate class features, but none of the alternate class features can replace or alter the same class feature from the core class as another alternate class feature. For example, a paladin could not be both a hospitaler and an undead scourge since they both modify the smite evil class feature and both replace the aura of justice class feature. A paladin could, however, be both an undead scourge and a warrior of the holy light, since none of their new class features replace the same core class feature.
Archetypes are a quick and easy way to specialize characters of a given class, adding fun and flavorful new abilities to already established adventurers. The druid class has several sub-categories of archetypes.
|Archetype / Alternate Class Feature||Class Features Changed or Replaced|
|Class Skills||Weapon & Armor||Spells||Spontaneous Casting||Orisons||Bonus Languages||Nature Bond||Nature Sense||Wild Empathy||Woodland Stride||Trackless Step||Resist Nature’s Lure||Wild Shape||Venom Immunity||A Thousand Faces||Timeless Body|
|Green Faith Initiate||X||X||X||X||X|
|Totem Animal Archetypes|
|Animal and Terrain Domains||X|
|Racial Archetypes – The following class archetypes are available to members of the listed race.|
|Feral Child (Human)||C||C||C||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|Naga Aspirant (Nagaji)||X||X||C||C||C||C||C||C||C||X||X||X||X|
|Season Keeper (Triaxian)|
|Sky Druid (Sylph)||C||C||X||X||X||C||C||C||C||C||C||C||C||X||X|
|Troll Fury (Troll)|
|Undine Adept (Undine)||C||X||X||X||X||C||C||C||C||C||C||C||C||X|
|3rd Party Publishers|
|4 Winds Fantasy Gaming|
|Ascension Games, LLC|
|Flaming Crab Games|
|Forest Guardian Press|
|Necromancers of the Northwest|
|Rogue Genius Games|
|Air Elemental Companion||X|
|Ironskinned Animal Companion|
|X=replaced, (X)=optionally replaced, C=changed, 1=archetype package 1, 2=archetype package 2|
- Animal Companions
- Animal Companion Archetypes
- Aberrant (Companion Archetype)
- Ambusher (Companion Archetype)
- Augmented (Companion Archetype)
- Auspice (Companion Archetype)
- Bully (Companion Archetype)
- Daredevil (Companion Archetype)
- Deathtouched (Companion Archetype)
- Draconic (Companion Archetype)
- Feytouched (Companion Archetype)
- Precocious (Companion Archetype)
- Tracker (Companion Archetype)
- Verdant (Companion Archetype)
- Wrecker (Companion Archetype)
- Bodyguard (Companion Archetype)
- Charger (Companion Archetype)
- Racer (Companion Archetype)
- Totem Guide (Companion Archetype)
- Drake Companions
- Sample Animal Companions
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 1
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 10 -11
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 12
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 13
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 14
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 15
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 16
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 17
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 18-19
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 2
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 20
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 3
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 4
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 5
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 6
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 7
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 8
- Animal Companions - Effective Druid Level 9
- Animal Companion Archetypes
- Dreamscarred Press - Druid Archetypes
- Legendary Games - Druid Archetypes
- Petersen Games - Druid Archetypes
- 4 Winds Fantasy Gaming - Druid Archetypes
- Ascension Games, LLC - Druid Archetypes
- Flaming Crab Games - Druid Archetypes
- Forest Guardian Press - Druid Archetypes
- Frog God Games - Druid Archetypes
- Necromancers of the Northwest - Druid Archetypes
- Onyx Path and Nocturnal Publishing - Druid Archetypes
- Paizo, Inc. - Druid Archetypes
- Progenitor (Druid Archetype)
- Aerie Protector
- Defender of the True World
- Dinosaur Druid
- Fungal Pilgrim
- Green Faith Initiate
- Green Scourge
- Leshy Warden
- Mantella (Grippli)
- Planar Extremist
- Road Keeper
- Rot Warden
- Season Sage
- Halcyon Druid
- Tempest Druid
- Tempest Tamer
- Ancient Guardian
- Animal and Terrain Domains
- Ape Shaman
- Aquatic Druid
- Arctic Druid
- Bat Shaman
- Bear Shaman
- Blight Druid
- Boar Shaman
- Cave Druid
- Death Druid
- Desert Druid
- Draconic Druid
- Dragon Shaman
- Eagle Shaman
- Elemental Ally
- Feral Shifter
- Goliath Druid
- Green Faith Initiate
- Jungle Druid
- Kraken Caller
- Leshy Warden
- Life Channeler
- Lion Shaman
- Menhir Savant
- Mountain Druid
- Nature Fang
- Pack Lord
- Plains Druid
- Reincarnated Druid
- River Druid
- Saurian Shaman
- Season Keeper (Triaxian)
- Serpent Shaman
- Shark Shaman
- Storm Druid
- Swamp Druid
- Swarm Monger
- Tempest Druid
- Troll Fury (Troll)
- Urban Druid
- Veiled Adept
- Wild Whisperer
- Wolf Shaman
- World Walker
- Radiance House - Druid Archetypes
- Rite Publishing - Druid Archetypes
- Rogue Genius Games - Druid Archetypes
- The Bloodbond Unique Domain
Pathfinder RPG Core Rulebook. © 2009, Paizo Publishing, LLC; Author: Jason Bulmahn, based on material by Jonathan Tweet, Monte Cook, and Skip Williams.