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    Skill Checks

    Acrobatics (Dex; ACP)

    Surface Width Base Acrobatics DC
    > 3 ft 01
    1–3 ft 51
    7–11 in 10
    2–6 in 15
    < 2 in 20
    1 No check needed unless total DC is 10 or higher.
    Situation Base Acrobatics DC2
    Move through a threatened area Opponent’s CMD
    Move through an enemy’s space 5 + Opponent’s CMD
    2 DC to avoid AoO. DC increases by 2 for each additional opponent.
    Long Jump Acrobatics DC
    5 ft 5
    10 ft 10
    15 ft 15
    20 ft 20
    > 20 ft +5 per 5 ft
    High Jump Acrobatics DC
    1 ft 4
    2 ft 8
    3 ft 12
    4 ft 16
    > 4 ft +4 per ft
    Acrobatics Modifiers DC Modifier
    Lightly Obstructed (gravel, sand) +2
    Severely Obstructed (cavern, rubble) +5
    Slightly Slippery (wet) +2
    Severely Slippery (icy) +5
    Slightly Sloped (<45°) +2
    Severely Sloped (>45°) +5
    Slightly Unsteady (boat in rough water) +2
    Mildly Unsteady (boat in a storm) +5
    Severely Unsteady (earthquake) +10
    Move at full speed on narrow or uneven surfaces +53
    3 This does not apply to checks made to jump.

    Bluff (Cha)

    Circumstances Bluff Modifier
    Target wants to believe you +5
    Lie is believable +0
    Lie is unlikely –5
    Lie is far-fetched –10
    Lie is impossible –20
    Target is drunk or impaired +5
    You possess convincing proof up to +10

    Climb (Str; ACP)

    Climb DC Example Surface or Activity
    0 A slope too steep to walk, knotted rope + wall.
    5 Rope + wall, knotted rope, rope with rope trick.
    10 A surface with ledges (eg ship’s rigging).
    15 Surface with handholds (eg tree/natural wall), unknotted rope, pull ups
    20 Uneven surface with narrow handholds (eg typical wall in dungeon).
    25 A rough surface (e.g. brick wall)
    30 An overhang or ceiling with handholds but no footholds
    A perfectly smooth, flat, vertical (or inverted) surface cannot be climbed.
    Climb DC Modifier* Example Surface or Activity
    –10 Climbing a chimney (brace against two opposite walls).
    –5 Climbing a corner where you can brace against perpendicular walls.
    +5 Surface is slippery.
    * These modifiers are cumulative; use all that apply.

    Diplomacy (Cha)

    Starting Attitude Diplomacy DC (+creature's Cha Modifier)
    Hostile 25
    Unfriendly 20
    Indifferent 15
    Friendly 10
    Helpful 0
    Request Diplomacy Modifier
    Give simple advice or directions –5
    Give detailed advice +0
    Give simple aid +0
    Reveal an unimportant secret +5
    Give lengthy or complicated aid +5
    Give dangerous aid +10
    Reveal secret knowledge +10 or more
    Give aid that could result in punishment +15 or more
    Additional requests +5 per request

    Disable Device (Dex; ACP; Trained)

    Device Time Disable Device DC1 Example
    Simple 1 round 10 Jam a lock
    Tricky 1d4 rounds 15 Sabotage a wagon wheel
    Difficult 2d4 rounds 20 Disarm a trap, reset a trap
    Extreme 2d4 rounds 25 Disarm a complex trap, cleverly sabotage a clockwork device
    1 If you attempt to leave behind no trace of your tampering, add 5 to the DC.
    Lock Quality DC
    Simple 20
    Average 25
    Good 30
    Amazing 40

    Disguise (Cha)

    Disguise Disguise Check Modifier
    Minor details only +5
    Different gender1 –2
    Different race1 –2
    Different age category1 –22
    Different size & category1 -10
    1 These modifiers are cumulative; use any that apply.
    2 Per step of difference between your actual age category and your disguised age category. The steps are: young (younger than adulthood), adulthood, middle age, old, and venerable.
    Familiarity Viewer’s Perception Check Bonus
    Recognizes on sight +4
    Friends or associates +6
    Close friends +8
    Intimate +10

    Escape Artist (Dex; ACP)

    Restraint Escape Artist DC Action/Time
    Rope/bindings Binder’s CMB + 20 1 minute
    Net, animate rope spell, command plants, control plants, or entangle 20 1 full-round action
    Snare spell 23 1 full-round action
    Manacles (normal) 30 1 minute
    Tight space 30 at least 1 minute
    Manacles (masterwork) 35 1 minute
    Grapple or pin Grappler’s CMD standard action

    Fly (Dex; ACP)

    Flying Maneuver Fly DC
    Move less than half speed and remain flying 10
    Hover 15
    Turn greater than 45° by spending 5 feet of movement 15
    Turn 180° by spending 10 feet of movement 20
    Fly up at a greater than 45° angle 20
    Wind Force Wind Speed (mph)
    Checked Size Blown Away Size Fly Penalty
    Light 0–10
    Moderate 11–20
    Strong 21–30 Tiny –2
    Severe 31–50 Small Tiny –4
    Windstorm 51–74 Medium Small –8
    Hurricane 75–174 Large Medium –12
    Tornado 175+ Huge Large –16

    Handle Animal (Cha; Trained)

    Task Handle Animal DC
    Handle an animal 10
    “Push” an animal 25
    Teach an animal a trick 15 or 20
    Train an animal for a general purpose 15 or 20
    Rear a wild animal 15 + HD of animal

    Heal (Wis)

    Task Heal DC Time
    First aid 15 Standard Action
    Long-term care 15 8 hours
    Treat wounds from caltrops, spike growth, or spike stones 15 10 minutes
    Treat deadly wounds 20 1 hour
    Treat poison Poison’s save DC Standard Action
    Treat disease Disease’s save DC 10 minutes

    Knowledge (Int; Trained)

    Task Knowledge Skill DC
    Identify auras while using detect magic Arcana 15 + spell level
    Identify a spell effect that is in place Arcana 20 + spell level
    Identify materials manufactured by magic Arcana 20 + spell level
    Identify a spell that just targeted you Arcana 25 + spell level
    Identify the spells cast using a specific material component Arcana 20
    Identify underground hazard Dungeoneering 15 + hazard’s CR
    Identify mineral, stone, or metal Dungeoneering 10
    Determine slope Dungeoneering 15
    Determine depth underground Dungeoneering 20
    Identify dangerous construction Engineering 10
    Determine structure’s style or age Engineering 15
    Determine a structure’s weakness Engineering 20
    Identify a creature’s ethnicity or accent Geography 10
    Recognize regional terrain features Geography 15
    Know location of nearest community or noteworthy site Geography 20
    Know recent or historically significant event History 10
    Determine approximate date of a specific event History 15
    Know obscure or ancient historical event History 20
    Know local laws, rulers, and popular locations Local 10
    Know a common rumor or local tradition Local 15
    Know hidden organizations, rulers, and locations Local 20
    Identify natural hazard Nature 15 + hazard’s CR
    Identify a common plant or animal Nature 10
    Identify unnatural weather phenomenon Nature 15
    Determine artificial natural of feature Nature 20
    Know current rulers and their symbol Nobility 10
    Know proper etiquette Nobility 15
    Know line of succession Nobility 20
    Know the names of the planes Planes 10
    Recognize current plane Planes 15
    Identify a creature’s planar origin Planes 20
    Recognize a common deity’s symbol or clergy Religion 10
    Know common mythology and tenets Religion 15
    Recognize an obscure deity’s symbol or clergy Religion 20
    Identify a monster’s abilities and weaknesses Varies 10 + monster’s CR
    Creature Type Field of Study
    constructs, dragons, magical beasts Arcana
    aberrations, oozes Dungeoneering
    humanoids Local
    animals, fey, giants, monstrous humanoids, plants, vermin Nature
    outsiders Planes
    undead Religion

    Linguistics (Int; Trained)

    Situation to detect forgery Linguistics Check Modifier
    Type of document unknown to reader –2
    Type of document somewhat known to reader +0
    Type of document well known to reader +2
    Handwriting not known to reader –2
    Handwriting somewhat known to reader +0
    Handwriting intimately known to reader +2
    Reader only casually reviews the document –2
    Document contradicts orders or knowledge +2

    Perception (Wis)

    Detail Perception DC
    Hear the sound of battle –10
    Notice the stench of rotting garbage –10
    Detect the smell of smoke 0
    Hear the details of a conversation 0
    Notice a visible creature 0
    Determine if food is spoiled 5
    Hear the sound of a creature walking 10
    Hear the details of a whispered conversation 15
    Find the average concealed door 15
    Hear the sound of a key being turned in a lock 20
    Find the average secret door 20
    Hear a bow being drawn 25
    Sense a burrowing creature underneath you 25
    Notice a pickpocket Opposed by Sleight of Hand
    Notice a creature using Stealth Opposed by Stealth
    Find a hidden trap Varies by trap
    Identify the powers of a potion through taste 15 + the potion's caster level
    Perception Modifiers DC Modifier
    Distance to the source, object, or creature +1/10 ft.
    Through a closed door +5
    Through a wall +10/ft. of thickness
    Favorable conditions1 –2
    Unfavorable conditions1 +2
    Terrible conditions2 +5
    Creature making the check is distracted +5
    Creature making the check is asleep +10
    Creature or object is invisible +20
    1 Depends upon the sense being used to make the check, eg bright light might increase the DC of checks involving sight, while torchlight or moonlight might give a penalty.
    2 As for unfavorable conditions, but more extreme, eg, candlelight for DCs involving sight.

    Ride (Dex; ACP)

    Task Ride DC
    Guide with knees 5
    Stay in saddle 5
    Fight with a combat-trained mount 10
    Cover 15
    Soft fall 15
    Leap 15
    Spur mount 15
    Control mount in battle 20
    Fast mount or dismount 20

    Spellcraft (Int; Trained)

    Task Spellcraft DC
    Identify a spell as it is being cast 15 + spell level
    Learn a spell from a spellbook or scroll 15 + spell level
    Prepare a spell from a borrowed spellbook 15 + spell level
    Identify the properties of a magic item using detect magic 15 + item's caster level
    Decipher a scroll 20 + spell level
    Craft a magic item Varies by item

    Survival (Wis)

    Survival DC Task
    10 Get along in the wild. Move up to half your overland speed. Provide food and water for self + 1 person per 2 points over DC.
    15 Gain a +2 bonus on all Fortitude saves against severe weather while moving up to half your overland speed, or gain a +4 bonus if you remain stationary (Self + 1 person per point over DC)
    15 Keep from getting lost or avoid natural hazards, such as quicksand.
    15 Predict the weather up to 24 hours in advance. (+1 day for every 5 points over DC)
    Surface Base Track DC
    Very soft ground 5
    Soft ground 10
    Firm ground 15
    Hard ground 20
    Condition Track DC Modifier
    Every three creatures in the group being tracked –1
    Size of creature or creatures being tracked (use largest creature):
    Fine +8
    Diminutive +4
    Tiny +2
    Small +1
    Medium +0
    Large –1
    Huge –2
    Gargantuan –4
    Colossal –8
    Every 24 hours since the trail was made +1
    Every hour of rain since the trail was made +1
    Fresh snow since the trail was made +10
    Poor visibility (use largest modifier):
    Overcast or moonless night +6
    Moonlight +3
    Fog or precipitation +3
    Tracked party hides trail (and moves at half speed) +5

    Swim (Str; ACP)

    Water Swim DC
    Calm water 10
    Rough water 15
    Stormy water 20*
    * Can't take 10 in stormy water.

    Use Magic Device (Cha; Trained)

    Task Use Magic Device DC
    Activate blindly 25
    Decipher a written spell 25 + spell level
    Use a scroll 20 + caster level
    Use a wand 20
    Emulate a class feature 20
    Emulate an ability score 15 + ability score
    Emulate a race 25
    Emulate an alignment 30

    Combat

    Actions in Combat

    Standard Action Attack of Opportunity1
    Attack (melee) No
    Attack (ranged) Yes
    Attack (unarmed) Yes
    Activate a magic item other than a potion or oil No
    Aid another Maybe2
    Cast a spell (1 standard action casting time) Yes
    Channel energy No
    Concentrate to maintain an active spell No
    Dismiss a spell No
    Draw a hidden weapon (see Sleight of Hand skill) No
    Drink a potion or apply an oil Yes
    Escape a grapple No
    Feint No
    Light a torch with a tindertwig Yes
    Lower spell resistance No
    Read a scroll Yes
    Ready (triggers a standard action) No
    Stabilize a dying friend (see Heal skill) Yes
    Total defense No
    Use extraordinary ability No
    Use skill that takes 1 action Usually
    Use spell-like ability Yes
    Use supernatural ability No
    Move Action Attack of Opportunity1
    Move Yes
    Control a frightened mount Yes
    Direct or redirect an active spell No
    Draw a weapon3 No
    Load a hand crossbow or light crossbow Yes
    Open or close a door No
    Mount/dismount a steed No
    Move a heavy object Yes
    Pick up an item Yes
    Sheathe a weapon Yes
    Stand up from prone Yes
    Ready or drop a shield3 No
    Retrieve a stored item Yes
    Full-Round Action Attack of Opportunity1
    Full attack No
    Charge4 No
    Deliver coup de grace Yes
    Escape from a net Yes
    Extinguish flames No
    Light a torch Yes
    Load a heavy or repeating crossbow Yes
    Lock or unlock weapon in locked gauntlet Yes
    Prepare to throw splash weapon Yes
    Run Yes
    Use skill that takes 1 round Usually
    Use a touch spell on up to six friends Yes
    Withdraw4 No
    Free Action Attack of Opportunity1
    Cease concentration on a spell No
    Drop an item No
    Drop to the floor No
    Prepare spell components to cast a spell5 No
    Speak No
    Swift Action Attack of Opportunity1
    Cast a quickened spell No
    Immediate Action Attack of Opportunity1
    Cast feather fall No
    No Action Attack of Opportunity1
    Delay No
    5-foot step No
    Action Type Varies Attack of Opportunity1
    Perform a combat maneuver6 Yes
    Use feat7 Varies
    1 Regardless of the action, if you move out of a threatened square, you usually provoke an attack of opportunity. This column indicates whether the action itself, not moving, provokes an attack of opportunity.
    2 If you aid someone performing an action that would normally provoke an attack of opportunity, then the act of aiding another provokes an attack of opportunity as well.
    3 If you have a base attack bonus of +1 or higher, you can combine one of these actions with a regular move. If you have the Two-Weapon Fighting feat, you can draw two light or one-handed weapons in the time it would normally take you to draw one.
    4 May be taken as a standard action if you are limited to taking only a single action in a round.
    5 Unless the component is an extremely large or awkward item.
    6 Some combat maneuvers substitute for a melee attack, not an action. As melee attacks, they can be used once in an attack or charge action, one or more times in a full-attack action, or even as an attack of opportunity. Others are used as a separate action.
    7 The description of a feat defines its effect.

    Attack Roll Modifiers

    Attacker is… Melee Ranged
    Dazzled –1 –1
    Entangled or grappled –21 –21
    Flanking defender +2
    Invisible +22 +22
    On higher ground +1 +0
    Prone –4 3
    Shaken or frightened –2 –2
    Squeezing through a space –4 –4
    1 Character also takes a –4 penalty to Dexterity, which may affect his attack roll.
    2 The defender loses any Dexterity bonus to AC.
    3 Most ranged weapons can't be used while the attacker is prone, but you can use a crossbow or shuriken while prone at no penalty.

    Armor Class Modifiers

    Defender is… Melee Ranged
    Behind cover +4 +4
    Blinded –21 –21
    Concealed or invisible See Concealment
    Cowering –21 –21
    Entangled +02 +02
    Flat-footed +01 +01
    Grappled (but attacker is not) +02 +02
    Helpless –41 +01
    Kneeling or sitting –2 +2
    Pinned –41 +01
    Prone –4 +4
    Squeezing through a space –4 –4
    Stunned –21 –21
    1 The defender loses any Dexterity bonus to AC.
    2 An entangled or grappled character takes a –4 penalty to Dexterity.

    Size Bonuses and Penalties

    Size AC/Attack CMB/CMD Fly Skill Stealth Skill
    Fine +8 –8 +8 +16
    Diminutive +4 –4 +6 +12
    Tiny +2 –2 +4 +8
    Small +1 –1 +2 +4
    Medium +0 +0 +0 +0
    Large –1 +1 –2 –4
    Huge –2 +2 –4 –8
    Gargantuan –4 +4 –6 –12
    Colossal –8 +8 –8 –16

    Combat Maneuver Summary

    CM Stats Description
    CMB BAB + Str mod + CM size mod
    CMD 10 + BAB + Str mod + Dex mod + CM size mod + non-physical AC mods
    Combat Maneuver Action Summary
    Bull Rush Std/Chg Push target 5 ft1
    Disarm Atk Target drops 1 item (2 if exceeds CMD by 10)
    Grapple Std Target and attacker gain grappled condition
    Overrun Std/Chg Move through target (target prone if exceeds CMD by 5)
    Sunder Atk Deal damage to item held or worn by target
    Trip Atk Knock target prone (attacker prone if fail by 10)
    APG CM Action Summary
    Dirty Trick Std Inflict a condition on target for 1 rnd1
    Drag Std Pull target 5 ft1
    Reposition Std Move target 5 ft within your reach1
    Steal Atk Take exposed item from target2
    1 Effect occurs again for every 5 by which the check exceeds CMD (extra 5 ft, extra 1 rnd, etc)
    2 Can only take items that are removable and not actively held by target, who gets bonus on CMD of +5 or more if item securely attached.

    Grapple Guide

    Grapple Controller Options* Effect
    Maintain Grapple (CMB check, +5 bonus) Both continue to be grappled
    Move (CMB check, +5 bonus) Maintain + move self + defender up to 1/2 speed (defender gets check at +4 to break out if end location hazardous)
    Damage (CMB check, +5 bonus) Maintain + deal lethal or non-lethal damage with unarmed strike, natural attack, armor spikes, or 1-handed weapon
    Pin (CMB check, +5 bonus) Maintain + defender gains pinned condition
    Tie up (CMB check, +5 bonus if pinned, -5 penalty otherwise) Maintain + defender gains pinned condition, controller loses grappled condition (defender can attempt to escape ropes DC 20+CMD)
    Grapple Defender Options Effect
    Escape Grapple (CMB or Escape Artist check) Both lose grappled condition
    Reverse Grapple (CMB check) Become grapple controller
    Cast spell (Conc check DC 10 + CMB + spell level) Cast spell without somatic components and material component in hand (impossible to cast spells with somatic components)
    Take any other action that requires 1 hand Action functions normally with penalties imposed by grappled condition
    * Controlled must make one of the below checks or grapple ends

    Equipment Hardness and Hitpoints

    Weapon or Shield Hardness1 (+2/enhance bonus) Hit Points2 (+10/enhance bonus)
    Light blade 10 2
    One-handed blade 10 5
    Two-handed blade 10 10
    Light metal-hafted weapon 10 10
    One-handed metal-hafted weapon 10 20
    Light hafted weapon 5 2
    One-handed hafted weapon 5 5
    Two-handed hafted weapon 5 10
    Projectile weapon 5 5
    Armor 10 armor bonus × 5
    Buckler 10 5
    Light wooden shield 5 7
    Heavy wooden shield 5 15
    Light steel shield 10 10
    Heavy steel shield 10 20
    Tower shield 5 20
    1 Value for standard wood or steel as appropriate. For other materials, see substance table.
    2 Value for Medium equipment. Divide by 2/category smaller or multiply by 2/category larger.

    Substance Hardness and Hit Points

    Substance Hardness HP/in. of thickness
    Glass 1 1
    Paper or cloth 0 2
    Rope 0 2
    Ice 0 3
    Leather or hide 2 5
    Wood 5 10
    Stone 8 15
    Iron or steel 10 30
    Mithral 15 30
    Adamantine 20 40

    Common Object Hardness and Hit Points

    Object Hardness Hit Points Break DC
    Rope (1 in. diameter) 0 2 23
    Simple wooden door 5 10 13
    Small chest 5 1 17
    Good wooden door 5 15 18
    Treasure chest 5 15 23
    Strong wooden door 5 20 23
    Masonry wall (1 ft. thick) 8 90 35
    Hewn stone (3 ft. thick) 8 540 50
    Chain 10 5 26
    Manacles 10 10 26
    Masterwork manacles 10 10 28
    Iron door (2 in. thick) 10 60 28

    DCs to Break or Burst Items

    Strength Check to: DC1
    Break down simple door 132
    Break down good door 182
    Break down strong door 232
    Burst rope bonds 23
    Bend iron bars 24
    Break down barred door 252
    Burst chain bonds 26
    Break down iron door 282
    Condition DC Adjustment (use larger)
    Hold portal +5
    Arcane lock +10
    1 If an item has lost half or more of its hit points, the item gains the broken condition and the DC to break it drops by 2.
    2 Larger and smaller creatures get size bonuses and size penalties on Strength checks to break open doors as follows: Fine –16, Diminutive –12, Tiny –8, Small –4, Large +4, Huge +8, Gargantuan +12, Colossal +16.

    Concentration Check DCs

    Situation Concentration Check DC
    Cast defensively 15 + double spell level
    Injured while casting 10 + damage dealt + spell level
    Continuous damage while casting 10 + 1/2 damage dealt + spell level
    Affected by a non-damaging spell while casting DC of the spell + spell level
    Grappled or pinned while casting 10 + grappler's CMB + spell level
    Vigorous motion while casting 10 + spell level
    Violent motion while casting 15 + spell level
    Extremely violent motion while casting 20 + spell level
    Wind with rain or sleet while casting 5 + spell level
    Wind with hail and debris while casting 10 + spell level
    Weather caused by spell see spell
    Entangled while casting 15 + spell level

    Underwater Combat

    Condition Attack/Damage Movement Off Balance?
    Freedom of movement normal/normal (all) normal No
    Has a swim speed –2/half (B,S) normal No
    Successful Swim check –2/half1 (B,S) quarter or half2 No
    Firm footing –2/half1 (B,S) half No
    None of the above –2/half1 (all) normal Yes
    1 A creature without freedom of movement effects or a swim speed makes grapple checks underwater at a –2 penalty, but deals damage normally when grappling.
    2 A successful Swim check lets a creature move one-quarter its speed as a move action or one-half its speed as a full-round action.
    Ranged Weapons: Thrown weapons are ineffective underwater, even when launched from land. Attacks with other ranged weapons take a –2 penalty on attack rolls for every 5 feet of water they pass through, in addition to the normal penalties for range.
    Attacks from Land: Characters in water (at least chest deep) have improved cover (+8 bonus to AC, +4 bonus on Reflex saves) from opponents on land. Completely submerged characters have total cover.

    Splash Weapons

    Make a ranged attack against an unoccupied grid intersection (AC 5)
    • Hit: Creatures in all adjacent squares are dealt splash damage. No creatures take direct hit damage.
    • Miss: Roll 1d8 to determine the misdirection of the throw
      1. Count clockwise starting at the square closest to thrower (refer to diagram on right)
      2. Count a number of squares in the indicated direction equal to the number of range increments thrown.
      3. Finally, the item deals splash damage (if any) to all creatures in the square determined above and in all adjacent squares.

    Conditions

    Condition Description
    Blinded Creature takes a -2 penalty to AC, loses Dex bonus to AC, and takes a -4 penalty on most Str- and Dex-based skill checks and on opposed Perception skill checks. All opponents are considered to have total concealment (50% miss chance) against the blinded character. Creatures must make a DC 10 Acrobatics skill check to move faster than half speed or fall prone.
    Broken Weapons suffer a -2 penalty on attack and damage rolls and only score a critical hit on a natural 20 and only deal X2 damage. Armor and shields grant half AC bonus and double armor check penalty. Broken wands or staves use twice as many chages.
    Confused 01-25: Act normally, 26-50: Babble for one round, 51-75: Deal 1d8 + Str damage to self, 76-100: Attack nearest creature.
    Dazed Can take no actions (no penalties to AC)
    Dazzled -1 to attack and sight-based checks
    Deafened –4 penalty on initiative, opposed Perception checks (automatically fails checks based on sound), and 20% chance of spell failure (verbal)
    Disabled Typically at or below 0 hp. Take only standard or move action. Standard action causes 1 pt of damage (typically causes dying condition)
    Entangled No movement if bonds are anchored, otherwise move at half speed. Creature takes a -2 penalty on all attack rolls and a -4 penalty to Dex. Must make concentration check to cast spells.
    Exhausted Creature moves at half speed. -6 penalty to Str and Dex. Rest 1 hour to become fatigued.
    Fascinated Takes no actions. -4 to checks made as reactions. Potential threats allow new save, obvious threats break effect.
    Fatigued Creature cannot run or charge. -2 penalty to Str and Dex. Rest 8 hours to remove.
    Flat-Footed Loses Dex bonus to AC and CMD.
    Frightened As shaken, except creature must flee from source.
    Grappled Creature cannot move or take action that requires 2 hands. -4 penalty to Dex. -2 penalty to attacks and combat maneuvers (except checks made to maintain or escape). Must make concentration check to cast spells. Cannot take attacks of opportunity.
    Helpless Typically paralyzed, held, bound, pinned, sleeping, unconscious, etc. Effective Dex = 0, melee attacks get +4. Allows coup de grace.
    Incorporeal Immune to all nonmagical attack forms. Takes half damage (50%) from magic weapons, spells, spell-like effects, and supernatural effects. Full damage from other incorporeal or force effects.
    Invisible Gains a +2 on attack rolls, target loses Dex bonus to AC.
    Nauseated Creature can only take a move action and cannot attack, cast spells, or concentrate.
    Panicked As Frightened, except creature drops held items.
    Paralyzed Creature's Str and Dex reduced to 0. Fliers using wings fall. Creature is helpless.
    Pinned As grappled, except creature is flat-footed, takes a -4 penalty to AC, and can only take verbal or mental actions (except checks made to escape).
    Prone On ground. -4 to melee attacks (can't use ranged except crossbows). -4 to melee AC, +4 to ranged AC. Move + AoO to stand.
    Shaken Creature takes a -2 penalty on attack rolls, saving throws, skill checks, and ability checks.
    Sickened Creature takes a -2 penalty on all attack rolls, weapon damage rolls, saving throws, skill checks, and ability checks.
    Staggered Creature can only take a move action or standard action (plus swift and immediate).
    Stunned Creature cannot take actions, drops everything held, takes a -2 penalty to AC, and loses its Dex bonus to AC (if any).